Terrestrial planet formation in low-eccentricity warm-Jupiter systems
Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK e-mail: [M.J.Fogg;R.P.Nelson]@qmul.ac.uk
Accepted: 30 January 2009
Context. Extrasolar giant planets are found to orbit their host stars with a broad range of semi-major axes 0.02 ≤ a ≤ 6 AU. Current theories suggest that giant planets orbiting at distances between AU probably formed at larger distances and migrated to their current locations via type II migration, disturbing any inner system of forming terrestrial planets along the way. Migration probably halts because of fortuitously-timed gas disk dispersal.
Aims. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of giant planet migration on the formation of inner terrestrial planet systems. We consider situations in which the giant planet halts migration at semi-major axes in the range 0.13-1.7 AU due to gas disk dispersal, and examine the effect of including or neglecting type I migration forces on the forming terrestrial system.
Methods. We employ an N-body code that is linked to a viscous gas disk algorithm capable of simulating gas loss via accretion onto the central star and photoevaporation, gap formation by the giant planet, type II migration of the giant, optional type I migration of protoplanets, and gas drag on planetesimals.
Results. Most of the inner system planetary building blocks survive the passage of the giant planet, either by being shepherded inward or scattered into exterior orbits. Systems of one or more hot-Earths are predicted to form and remain interior to the giant planet, especially if type II migration has been limited, or where type I migration has affected protoplanetary dynamics. Habitable planets in low-eccentricity warm-Jupiter systems appear possible if the giant planet makes a limited incursion into the outer regions of the habitable zone (HZ), or traverses its entire width and ceases migrating at a radial distance of less than half that of the HZ's inner edge.
Conclusions. Type II migration does not prevent terrestrial planet formation. A wide variety of planetary system architectures exists that can potentially host habitable planets.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / methods: N-body simulations / astrobiology
© ESO, 2009