Formation of giant planets around stars with various masses
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany e-mail: email@example.com
2 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, Warsaw 00-716, Poland
Accepted: 7 March 2006
We examine the predictions of the core accretion – gas capture model concerning the efficiency of planet formation around stars with various masses. First, we follow the evolution of gas and solids from the moment when all solids are in the form of small grains to the stage when most of them are in the form of planetesimals. We show that the surface density of the planetesimal swarm tends to be higher around less massive stars. Then, we derive the minimum surface density of the planetesimal swarm required for the formation of a giant planet both in a numerical and in an approximate analytical approach. We combine these results by calculating a set of representative disk models characterized by different masses, sizes, and metallicities, and by estimating their capability of forming giant planets. Our results show that the set of protoplanetary disks capable of giant planet formation is larger for less massive stars. Provided that the distribution of initial disk parameters does not depend too strongly on the mass of the central star, we predict that the percentage of stars with giant planets should increase with decreasing stellar mass. Furthermore, we identify the radial redistribution of solids during the formation of planetesimal swarms as the key element in explaining these effects.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / planetary systems: protoplanetary disks / planetary systems: formation
© ESO, 2006