Volume 453, Number 3, July III 2006
|Page(s)||1003 - 1026|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||28 June 2006|
A SCUBA imaging survey of ultracompact HII regions
The environments of massive star formation
Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science & Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Centre for Astrophysics & Planetary Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NR, UK
3 School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK
4 School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW, 2052, Australia
5 Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK
6 School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK
Accepted: 28 March 2006
We present a SCUBA submillimetre (450 and 850 μm) survey of the environment of 105 IRAS point sources, selected from the Wood & Churchwell (1989a) and Kurtz et al. (1994) radio ultracompact (UC) Hii region surveys. We detected a total of 155 sub-mm clumps associated with the IRAS point sources and identified three distinct types of object: ultracompact cm-wave sources that are not associated with any sub-mm emission (sub-mm quiet objects), sub-mm clumps that are associated with ultracompact cm-wave sources (radio-loud clumps); and sub-mm clumps that are not associated with any known ultracompact cm-wave sources (radio-quiet clumps). 90% of the sample of IRAS point sources were found to be associated with strong sub-mm emission. We consider the sub-mm colours, morphologies and distance-scaled fluxes of the sample of sub-mm clumps and show that the sub-mm quiet objects are unlikely to represent embedded UC Hii regions unless they are located at large heliocentric distances. Many of the 25 SCUBA fields contain more than one sub-mm clump, with an average number of companions (the companion clump fraction) of 0.90. The clumps are more strongly clustered than other candidate HMPOs and the mean clump surface density exhibits a broken power-law distribution with a break at 3 pc. We demonstrate that the sub-mm and cm-wave fluxes of the majority of radio-loud clumps are in excellent agreement with the standard model of ultracompact Hii regions. We speculate on the nature of the radio-quiet sub-mm clumps and, whilst we do not yet have sufficient data to conclude that they are in a pre-UC Hii region phase, we argue that their characteristics are suggestive of such a stage.
Key words: stars: formation / ISM: HII regions / ISM: dust, extinction / submillimeter / radio continuum: ISM
© ESO, 2006
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