Volume 429, Number 3, January III 2005
|Page(s)||945 - 960|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||05 January 2005|
Star-forming protoclusters associated with methanol masers
Service d'Astrophysique, DAPNIA/DSM/CEA CE de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France e-mail: Vincent.Minier@cea.fr
2 School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia
3 Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92 Onsala, Sweden
4 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
5 Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA
Accepted: 16 September 2004
We present a multiwavelength study of five methanol maser sites which are not directly associated with a strong (>100 mJy) radio continuum source: G 31.28+0.06, G 59.78+0.06, G 173.49+2.42 (S231, S233IR), G 188.95+0.89 (S252, AFGL5180) and G 192.60-0.05 (S255IR). These radio-quiet methanol maser sites are often interpreted as precursors of ultra-compact regions or massive protostar sites. In this work, the environment of methanol masers is probed from mid-IR to millimetre wavelengths at angular resolutions of . Spectral energy distribution (SED) diagrams for each site are presented, together with mass and luminosity estimates. Each radio-quiet maser site is always associated with a massive (>50 ), deeply embedded ( mag) and very luminous (>104 ) molecular clump, with . These physical properties characterise massive star-forming clumps in earlier evolutionary phases than regions. In addition, colder gas clumps seen only at mm-wavelengths are also found near the methanol maser sites. These colder clumps may represent an even earlier phase of massive star formation. These results suggest an evolutionary sequence for massive star formation from a cold clump, seen only at mm wavelengths, evolving to a hot molecular core with a two-component SED with peaks at far-IR and mid-IR wavelengths, to an (ultra-compact) region. Alternatively, the cold clumps might be clusters of low-mass YSOs, in formation near the massive star-forming clusters. Finally, the values of the dust grain emissivity index (β) range between 1.6 and 1.9.
Key words: masers / stars: formation / ISM: dust, extinction
© ESO, 2005
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.