Volume 448, Number 2, March III 2006
|Page(s)||613 - 622|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||24 February 2006|
Hadronic processes within collective stellar winds
Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), Edifici C-n, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
2 Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (ICE), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5 – parell – 2a planta, 08193 Barcelona, Spain e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore 94550, USA
Accepted: 22 October 2005
We have proposed that the interaction between relativistic protons resulting from Fermi first order acceleration in the superbubble of a stellar OB association or in other nearby accelerators and ions residing in single stellar winds of massive stars could lead to TeV sources without strong counterparts at lower energies. Here we refine this analysis in several directions. We study collective wind configurations produced by a number of massive stars, and obtain densities and expansion velocities of the stellar wind gas that is to be target of hadronic interactions. We study the expected γ-ray emission from these regions, considering in an approximate way the effect of cosmic ray modulation. We compute secondary particle production (electrons from knock-on interactions and electrons and positrons from charged pion decay), and solve the loss equation with ionization, synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, inverse Compton and expansion losses. We provide examples where configurations can produce sources for GLAST satellite and the MAGIC/HESS/VERITAS telescopes in non-uniform ways, i.e., with or without the corresponding counterparts. We show that in all cases we studied, no EGRET source is expected. We comment on HESS J1303-631 and on Cygnus OB 2 and Westerlund 1 as two associations where this scenario could be tested.
Key words: gamma rays: theory / gamma rays: observations / stars: winds, outflows
© ESO, 2006
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