Volume 426, Number 2, November I 2004
|Page(s)||503 - 515|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||11 October 2004|
A study of high velocity molecular outflows with an up-to-date sample *
Astronomy Department, CAS-PKU Joint Beijing Astrophysics Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China e-mail: email@example.com
2 National Astronomy Observatory of China, Beijing 100012, PR China
3 Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolon. 11, Trieste 34131, Italy
Accepted: 29 June 2004
A statistical study of the properties of molecular outflows is performed based on an up-to-date sample. 391 outflows were identified in published articles or preprints before February 28, 2003. The parameters of position, morphology, mass, energy, outflow dynamics and central source luminosity are presented for each outflow source. Outflow lobe polarity is known for all the sources, and 84% are found to be bipolar. The sources are divided into low mass and high mass groups according to either the available bolometric luminosity of the central source or the outflow mass. The pace of discovery of outflows over the past seven years has increased much more rapidly than in previous periods. Surveys for outflows are still continuing. The number of high-mass outflows detected (139) has considerably increased, showing that they are commonly associated with massive as well as low mass stars. Energetic mass ejection may be a common aspect of the formation of high mass as well as low mass stars. Outflow masses are correlated strongly with bolometric luminosity of the center sources, which was obtained for the first time. There are also correlations between the central source luminosity and the parameters of mechanical luminosity and the thrust or force necessary to drive the outflow. The results show that flow mass, momentum and energy depend on the nature of the central source. Despite their similarity, there are differences between the high mass and low mass outflows. Low mass outflows are more collimated than high mass outflows. On average, the mass of high mass sources can be more than two orders of magnitude larger than those of low mass outflows. The relation between flow mass and dynamical time appears to differ for the two types of outflows. Low mass sources make up 90% of outflows associated with HH objects while high mass outflows make up 61% of the sources associated with H2O masers. Sources with characteristics of collapse or infall comprise 12% of the entire outflow sample. The spatial distribution of the outflow sources in the Galaxy is presented and the local occurrence rate is compared with the stellar birth rate.
Key words: star: formation / stars: winds, outflows / ISM: jets and outflows / ISM: kinematics and dynamics
© ESO, 2004
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