New Period-Luminosity and Period-Color relations of classical Cepheids: I. Cepheids in the Galaxy*
Astronomisches Institut der Universität Basel, Venusstrasse 7, 4102 Binningen, Switzerland
2 The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
Corresponding author: G. A. Tammann, G-A.Tammann@unibas.ch
Accepted: 5 March 2003
321 Galactic fundamental-mode Cepheids with good B, V, and (in most cases) I photometry by Berdnikov et al. ([CITE]) and with homogenized color excesses based on Fernie et al. ([CITE]) are used to determine their period-color (P-C) relation in the range . The agreement with colors from different model calculations is good to poor. – Distances of 25 Cepheids in open clusters and associations (Feast [CITE]) and of 28 Cepheids with Baade-Becker-Wesselink (BBW) distances (Gieren et al. [CITE]) are used in a first step to determine the absorption coefficients , , and appropriate for Cepheids of intermediate color. The two sets of Galactic Cepheids with known distances define two independent P-L relations which agree very well in slope; their zero points agree to within . They are therefore combined into a single mean Galactic P-L relation. The analysis of HIPPARCOS parallaxes by Groenewegen & Oudmaijer ([CITE]) gives absolute magnitudes which are brighter by in V and in I at . Agreement with P-L relations from different model calculations for the case [Fe/H] = 0 is impressive to poor. Galactic Cepheids are redder in than those in LMC and SMC as shown by the over 1000 Cloud Cepheids with good standard B, V, I photometry by Udalski et al. ([CITE],c); the effect is less pronounced in . Also the , two-color diagrams differ between Cepheids in the Galaxy and the Clouds, attributed both to the effects of metallicity differences on the spectral energy distributions of the Cepheids and to a shift in the effective temperature of the middle of the instability strip for LMC and SMC relative to the Galaxy by about at , hotter for both LMC and SMC. Differences in the period-color relations between the Galaxy and the Clouds show that there cannot be a universal P-L relation from galaxy-to-galaxy in any given color. The inferred non-uniqueness of the slope of the P-L relations in the Galaxy, LMC, and SMC is born out by the observations. The Cloud Cepheids follow a shallower overall slope of the P-L relations in B, V, and I than the Galactic ones. LMC and SMC Cepheids are brighter in V than in the Galaxy by up to at short periods () and fainter at long periods (). The latter effect is enhanced by a suggestive break of the P-L relation of LMC and SMC at towards still shallower values as shown in a forthcoming paper.
Key words: Cepheids / Magellanic Clouds / distance scale / supernovae: general / cosmological parameters
© ESO, 2003