EDP Sciences
Free Access
Volume 403, Number 2, May IV 2003
Page(s) 463 - 472
Section Galactic structure and dynamics
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20030204
Published online 06 May 2003

A&A 403, 463-472 (2003)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030204

Soft X-ray emission lines in the afterglow spectrum of GRB 011211: A detailed XMM-Newton analysis

J. N. Reeves1, 2, 3, D. Watson1, J. P. Osborne1, K. A. Pounds1 and P. T. O'Brien1

1  X-ray and Observational Astronomy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
2  Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics, Code 662.0, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
3  Universities Space Research Association

(Received 28 June 2002 / Accepted 6 February 2003)

We report on an XMM-Newton observation of the X-ray afterglow of the Gamma Ray Burst GRB 011211, originally detected by Beppo-SAX on 11th December 2001. The early afterglow spectrum obtained by XMM-Newton, observed 11 hours after the initial burst, appeared to reveal decaying H-like K $\alpha$ emission lines of Mg, Si, S, Ar and Ca, arising in enriched material with an outflow velocity of order 0.1c (Reeves et al. 2002). This was attributed to matter ejected from a massive stellar progenitor occurring shortly before the burst itself. Here, we present a detailed re-analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC observations of GRB 011211. In particular, we show that the detection of the soft X-ray line emission appears robust, regardless of detector background, calibration, spectral binning, or the spectral model that is assumed. We demonstrate that thermal emission, from an optically thin plasma, is the most plausible model that can account for the soft X-ray emission, which appears to be the case for at least two burst afterglow spectra observed by XMM-Newton. The X-ray spectrum of GRB 011211 appears to evolve with time after the first 10 ks of the XMM-Newton observation as the Si and S emission lines are only detected during the first 10 ks of observation. The observations suggest that thermal emission is present during the early afterglow spectrum, whilst a power-law component dominates the latter stages. Finally we estimate the mass of the ejected material in GRB 011211 to be of the order 4-20 solar masses.

Key words: gamma rays: bursts -- supernovae: general -- X-rays: general

Offprint request: D. Watson, wat@star.le.ac.uk

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© ESO 2003

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