Volume 387, Number 3, June I 2002
|Page(s)||931 - 943|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||17 May 2002|
IRAS 05358+3543: Multiple outflows at the earliest stages of massive star formation
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
2 Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d'Hères, France
3 Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany
4 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Corresponding author: H. Beuther, firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 28 February 2002
We present a high-angular-resolution molecular line and millimeter continuum study of the massive star formation site IRAS 05358+3543. Observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in CO 1–0, SiO and H13CO+ 1–0 reveal at least three outflows which cannot be separated in single-dish data. Observations at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths from the IRAM 30 m telescope and the CSO provide additional information on the region. The most remarkable feature is a highly collimated (collimation factor ~10) and massive (>10 ) bipolar outflow of ~1 pc length, which is part of a quadrupolar outflow system. The three observed molecular outflows forming the IRAS 05358+3543 outflow system resemble, in structure and collimation, those typical of low-mass star-forming regions. They might therefore, just like low-mass outflows, be explained by shock entrainment models of jets. We estimate a mass accretion rate of ~/yr, sufficient to overcome the radiative pressure of the central object and to build up a massive star, lending further support to the hypothesis that massive star formation occurs similarly to low-mass star formation, only with higher accretion rates and energetics. In the millimeter continuum, we find three sources near the center of the quadrupolar outflow, each with a mass of 75–100 . These cores are associated with a complex region of infrared reflection nebulosities and their embedded illuminating sources. The molecular line data show that SiO is found mostly in the outflows, whereas H13CO+ traces core-like structures, though likely with varying relative abundances. Thermal CH3OH comprises both features and can be disentangled into a core-tracing component at the line center, and wing emission following the outflows. A CO line-ratio study (using data of the –0, 2–1 and 6–5 transitions) reveals local temperature gradients.
Key words: molecular data / stars: early-type / stars: formation / stars: individual: IRAS 05358+3543 / ISM: jets and outflows
© ESO, 2002
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