Rotational structure and outflow in the infrared dark cloud 18223-3*
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany e-mail: email@example.com
2 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Accepted: 9 July 2009
Aims. We examine an Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) at high spatial resolution as a means to study rotation, outflow, and infall at the onset of massive star formation.
Methods. The IRDC 18223-3 was observed at 1.1 mm and 1.3 mm with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and follow-up short spacing information was obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional data were taken at 3 mm with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI).
Results. Submillimeter Array observations combined with IRAM 30 m data in 12CO(2–1) reveal the outflow orientation in the IRDC 18223-3 region, and PdBI 3 mm observations confirm this orientation in other molecular species. The implication of the outflow's presence is that an accretion disk is feeding it, so using line data for high density tracers such as C18O, N2H+, and CH3OH, we looked for indications of a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow direction. Surprisingly, this gradient turns out to be most apparent in CH3OH. The large size (28 000 AU) of the flattened rotating object detected indicates that this velocity gradient cannot be due solely to a disk, but rather from inward spiraling gas within which a Keplerian disk likely exists. The rotational signatures can be modeled via rotationally infalling gas. From the outflow parameters, we derive properties of the source such as an outflow dynamical age of ~37 000 years, outflow mass of ~13 , and outflow energy of erg. While the outflow mass and energy are clearly consistent with a high-mass star forming region, the outflow dynamical age indicates a slightly more evolved evolutionary stage than previous spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling indicates.
Conclusions. The orientation of the molecular outflow associated with IRDC 18223-3 is in the northwest-southeast direction and velocity gradients orthogonal to the outflow reveal a large rotating structure likely harboring an accretion disk within. We also present a model of the observed methanol velocity gradient. The calculated outflow properties reveal that this is truly a massive star in the making. These data present evidence for one of the youngest known outflow/infall/disk systems in massive star formation. A tentative evolutionary picture for massive disks is discussed.
Key words: stars: formation / stars: individual: IRDC 18223-3 / stars: early-type
© ESO, 2009