EDP Sciences
Free Access
Volume 381, Number 1, January I 2002
Page(s) 77 - 97
Section Formation, structure and evolution of stars
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20011300
Published online 15 January 2002

A&A 381, 77-97 (2002)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011300

The interaction between protostars and their environment: Carbon-bearing species towards low mass protostars

J. V. Buckle and G. A. Fuller

Department of Physics, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK

(Received 9 November 2000 / Accepted 10 September 2001 )

It is clear that outflow activity can have a significant impact on the structure and evolution of material in protostellar environments, but the detailed nature of the interaction between the outflow and surrounding material is not clearly understood. To probe the impact of outflow activity on protostellar core material, in this paper we present observations of ( $J_k=3_k \rightarrow$ 2 k), ( $J_{k_-,k_+}=3_{1,2} \rightarrow$ 2 2,1) and DCN ( $J=2 \rightarrow$ 1 multiplet) at 145 GHz towards a sample of Class 0 and Class I sources, to place constraints on the physical and chemical changes which have taken place through the onset of star formation. $\hbox{CH$_3$ OH}$ was detected towards all of the sources and positions observed. In many sources, the lines have two velocity components: one broad ( $\langle \Delta v\rangle~\sim$ 1.5 km s -1), and one narrow ( $\langle \Delta v\rangle~\sim$ 0.7 km s -1). Both velocity components of show significantly ( >10) enhanced abundances relative to quiescent dark clouds. These two components are predominantly a feature of the Class 0 sources. These sources also have the broadest lines in both components. $\hbox{c-C$_3$ H$_2$ }$ was detected towards 87% of the sources observed and DCN was detected towards 66% of the sources observed. The narrowest detected component of has similar linewidths to , and is detected towards only a small fraction of positions, implying that only a small number of sources contain undisturbed material. The degree of activity implied by the enhanced abundances in is larger in the Class 0 sources than the Class I sources. Since the narrower linewidth components also show enhanced abundances in this molecule, we conclude that energetic activity during the star formation process, which may include both outflow and infall processes, affects the apparently quiescent core material very early in the star formation process.

Key words: star: formation -- ISM: jets and outflows -- radio lines: ISM

Offprint request: J. V. Buckle, j.buckle@jach.hawaii.edu

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