Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Crimea, 334413 Nauchny, Ukraine
2 Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, 196140 St. Petersburgh, Russia
3 Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
4 Astronomy Division, PO Box 3000, 90014, University of Oulu, Finland
Corresponding author: A. Natta, email@example.com
Accepted: 7 September 2001
We present in this paper several high resolution () spectra of five UXORs (UX Ori, CQ Tau, BF Ori, RR Tau, WW Vul), which cover the entire visual range, from 3900 to about 8700 Å. There are between 4 and 7 spectra per star, obtained over a time interval of two years. Simultaneous or quasi-simultaneous photometric observations were also obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. The complete, reduced and normalized spectra are available in electronic form. We show for each star a selection of the most interesting lines, and the full spectrum of UX Ori computed by averaging the spectra obtained when the star was at maximum light. For UX Ori we show also the synthetic spectrum and provide an identification of most of the lines. The spectra are too sparse to form true time sequences; however, they provide an extremely useful database for studies of UX Ori-type stars. We discuss briefly the main features of the spectra. We show that they contain many time-stable photospheric lines that can be described to a good approximation by the synthetic spectra of normal A stars with and we derive for each star effective temperature, gravity and rotational velocity. We examine the time variability of selected lines and study their connection with the photometric activity of the stars. Two different types of spectral variability are identified. One is common to all stars with circumstellar (CS) gas and is caused by perturbations of the physical and kinematic conditions of the emitting region. There is no correlation between this type of activity and the brightness variations of the star. On the contrary, a second type of spectral variability correlates well with the brightness variations and is very likely connected with the screening effect of an opaque dust cloud which sporadically intersects the line of sight. This type of variability has been observed in its simplest form in one of the RR Tau spectra, where the equivalent width of the forbidden line [Oi] 6364 Å increased by a factor of about three as the star faded by approximately the same amount.
Key words: stars: individual: UX Ori, CQ Tau, BF Ori, RR Tau, WW Vul / stars: general
Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.
© ESO, 2001