Volume 372, Number 3, June IV 2001
|Page(s)||998 - 1004|
|Published online||15 June 2001|
Extended D2CO emission: The smoking gun of grain surface-chemistry
Observatoire de Bordeaux, BP 89, 33270 Floirac, France
2 Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Observatoire de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09, France
3 Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Apdo Postal 72-3 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México
4 SRON, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
5 CESR CNRS-UPS, BP 4346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
Corresponding author: C. Ceccarelli, firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 23 March 2001
We present new observations of the H2CO and D2CO emission around IRAS16293-2422, a low mass protostar in the ρ Ophiuchus complex. Bright H2CO and D2CO emission is detected up to 40'' from the center, corresponding to a linear distance of ~5000 AU. The derived H2CO abundance profile has two jumps at AU and AU, where the dust temperature reaches 100 K and 50 K respectively. The measured [ D2CO] /[ H2CO] abundance ratio in the envelope is between 0.03 and 0.16, an extremely high value. We demonstrate that the present new observations can only be explained if the D2CO (and H2CO) are formed during the previous cold pre-collapse phase, stored in the grain mantles, and released in the gas phase during the pre-collapse phase. We consider the two main competing theories for mantle formation, i.e. pure accretion against grain surface chemistry, and we conclude that the former theory cannot explain the present observations, whereas grain active chemistry very naturally does. We found that the mantles are evaporated because of the thermal heating of the grains by the central source and that in the outer cold envelope H2CO and D2CO molecules are embedded in CO-rich mantles which sublimate when the dust is warmer than 25 K. Finally, the present day H2CO and D2CO abundances very probably reflect the mantle composition. We argue that mantles have likely formed in an onion-like structure with the innermost ice layers more enriched in H2CO molecules and we give estimates of the CO hydrogenation efficiency across the envelope and/or in different ices.
Key words: ISM: abundances / ISM: molecules / stars: formation / ISM: individual: IRAS 16293-2422
© ESO, 2001
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