EDP Sciences
Free Access
Issue
A&A
Volume 557, September 2013
Article Number A131
Number of page(s) 52
Section Extragalactic astronomy
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201321390
Published online 20 September 2013

Online material

Appendix A: The Atlas

Appendix A.1: Content of the Atlas

In this appendix we present data and results for individual galaxies. The next subsection (Sect. A.2) provides some notes on the individual galaxies. In Sect. A.3, an Atlas page is provided for each galaxy. Each page is divided into two columns, each with four panels. The left column demonstrates the progression from the observed surface brightness (μK) and vertical velocity dispersions of the disk stars (σz) to mass surface densities (Σ) and mass-to-light ratios (Υ). The right column provides four rotation-curve mass decompositions.

The top panel in the left column shows the surface brightness profile. Gray dots represent the observed K-band surface brightness derived in Paper VI. The dashed line shows the fitted bulge. This bulge has been subtracted from the total surface brightness to obtain the light profile of the disk (black errorbars). The second panel shows the measured σz (errorbars), azimuthally averaged in 5″ wide rings. The dashed line indicates the exponential fit to the individual-fiber data (Paper VI). The third panel shows the derived mass surface density of the disk (Σdyn) and its three component; stars (Σ), atomic gas (Σatom) and molecular gas (Σmol). The open circles indicate Σdyn, calculated directly from the measured σz. The filled dots with errorbars show the calculated Σ (where the gas has been subtracted from Σdyn). The dotted and dash-dotted lines show measured Σatom and Σmol, respectively. The black dashed line shows , calculated from the surface brightness (above) and the weighted average stellar mass-to-light ratio (below). The dark gray dashed line, falling of most rapidly with radius, indicates , calculated with the same mass-to-light ratio as the disk. The bottom panel shows the calculated dynamical (Υdyn; open circles) and stellar (Υ; filled circles with errorbars) mass-to-light ratios. The solid and dashed lines show the weighted average of Υ and Υdyn, respectively. The arrow on the x-axis indicates 2.2hR. In all figures, the light gray shaded region indicates the region excluded from any analysis, typically the “bulge” region, delimited by the radius Rbulge at which the light from the bulge contributes 10% to the total light. We have excluded any points within this region when calculating the average Υ. In all panels, the darker gray areas around the measured points indicate systematic errors.

The right column shows four different rotation-curve decompositions. Note that the panels in this column have different radial scaling than the panels in the left column. The observed Hα and Hi rotation curves are indicated with filled and open dots, respectively. The rotation curves of the stellar bulge (dark gray dashed line), stellar disk (black dashed line), molecular gas (dash-dotted line) and atomic gas (dotted line) have been calculated from the mass surface densities shown in the left column, as described in Sect. 5.1. The solid gray line indicates the fitted dark-matter rotation curve. The solid black line is the quadrature sum of the various components. From top to bottom, the four panels in the right column show the rotation-curve mass decomposition results when using the nominal Υ with a fitted pISO dark-matter halo (Case Ia); the nominal Υ with a fitted NFW dark-matter halo (Case Ib); a maximum disk (scaled-up Υ) with a fitted pISO dark-matter halo (Case IIa); and a maximum disk with a fitted NFW dark-matter halo (Case IIb). The arrow in the bottom panel indicates 2.2hR, the theoretical radius of maximum rotation speed of an infinitely-thin exponential disk.

Appendix A.2: Notes on individual galaxies

Here, we present a few notes on the individual galaxies. See Paper VI for more detailed notes on the data products of the individual galaxies from PPak, for comments on [Oiii] emission, stellar and [Oiii] kinematics, kinematic flaring, known supernovae within the galaxies, and for notes on close field stars. See Martinsson (2011) for more comments on the Hi observations of the individual galaxies, and for notes on close companion galaxies (detected in Hi).

  • UGC 448: IC 43. High-quality kinematics, with regular stellar and gas kinematics. Significant bulge with second highest bulge-to-disk ratio in the sample (B/D = 0.32). The rotation curve rises quite sharply. Hi rotation curve corrected for an inclination warp (Martinsson 2011). A small bar and significant spiral structure are visible morphologically, but exhibit little kinematic influence.

  • UGC 463: NGC 234. High-quality kinematics. PPak and SparsePak data studied in detail in Paper IV. Strong, three-arm spiral structure with minor streaming motions.

  • UGC 1081: NGC 575, IC 1710. Strongly barred galaxy. Bright field star within the PPak field-of-view. A Type-II break exists in μK(R) at roughly 1hR (approximately the same as the bar length). The mass surface density profile of the atomic gas is estimated using the results in Martinsson (2011).

  • UGC 1087: “Ringing” present in μK(R) associated with the azimuthal coherence of the tightly wound spiral arms. Hi rotation curve corrected for an inclination warp (Martinsson 2011).

  • UGC 1529: IC 193. High-quality kinematics. Sc galaxy, rather typical of our sample, apart from the high inclination (iTF = 39°). The mass surface density profile of the atomic gas is estimated using the results in Martinsson (2011).

  • UGC 1635: IC 208. A Type-II break in μK(R) occurs at ~1hR with a corresponding dip in the [Oiii] and Hα rotation curves; any dynamical association between these features is unknown. Gas poor.

  • UGC 1862: Unique among our sample: It has the lowest luminosity, MK =  −21.0, one magnitude fainter than the second least luminous galaxy (UGC 3701). Two Type-II breaks exist in μK(R) (at ~23″ and ~60″), but no indication of a bulge component; inner break is caused by the spiral arms. Appears to have a rather large bar. Data within are excluded in the kinematic analysis, to avoid beam-smearing effects particularly strong in the center. The only galaxy in the sample for which the rotation curve does not reach R = 2.2hR. The mass surface density profile of the atomic gas is estimated using the results in Martinsson (2011).

  • UGC 1908: NGC 927, Mrk 593. Barred galaxy with a weak Type-II break in μK(R) at ~1hR. Classified as a Starburst Nucleus Galaxy (SBNG), but its nucleus has an ambiguous activity classification between H2 and LINER (Contini et al. 1998). The mass surface density profile of the atomic gas is estimated using the results in Martinsson (2011).

  • UGC 3091: Since the bulge/disk fitting routine resulted in a non-existing bulge, the excess light in the central region is interpreted as an inner disk. As with UGC 1862, σLOS and σz data within are excluded from our analysis. The mass surface density profile of the atomic gas is estimated using the results in Martinsson (2011).

  • UGC 3140: NGC 1642. Very close to face on with iTF = 14°. Nicely defined spiral structure but slightly lopsided. The μK profile breaks to a more extended disk (larger scale length) at R ~ 16″. There is a small offset between the Hi and Hα rotation curves (Sect. 4.1), possibly due to Hi asymmetries. Hi rotation curve corrected for an inclination warp (Martinsson 2011).

  • UGC 3701: Second lowest disk surface brightness in our sample. Some ringing in the μK profile due to the spiral arms. Rotation curve rises slowly. Hi rotation curve corrected for an inclination warp (Martinsson 2011).

  • UGC 3997: Classified as Im by RC3 with low surface brightness. There is a small offset between the Hi and Hα rotation curves (Sect. 4.1), maybe due to the warp in position angle, corrected for in the Hi rotation curve (Martinsson 2011) but not in the Hα rotation curve.

  • UGC 4036: NGC 2441. Observations are dominated by ring-like structure, probably due to weak bar. Streaming motions likely affect the observed rotation curve.

  • UGC 4107: High-quality kinematics. Well-defined three-arm spiral structure. Type-II break in μK(R) at R ~ 20″.

  • UGC 4256: NGC 2532. Two close companions ~4′ to the north connected by an Hi bridge (Martinsson 2011). Interaction has likely produced the bright arm toward the east and the lopsidedness of the galaxy. High star-formation rate with very bright [Oiii] emission associated with visible star-formation regions (Paper VI). One of two galaxies in the sample with a molecular gas mass which is larger than the stellar mass. Note that the bump feature in the modeled molecular-gas rotation curve can also be seen in the observed rotation curve, and that the submaximal cases fit this feature better than the maximum-Υ cases. There is a small offset between the Hi and Hα rotation curves (Sect. 4.1), maybe due to its kinematic lopsidedness.

  • UGC 4368: NGC 2575. Highest inclination in the sample (iTF = 45°). High-quality stellar kinematics. Type-II breaks in μK(R) at R ~ 16″ and R ~ 30″.

  • UGC 4380: Low-inclination galaxy () with a small apparent size and scale length. Stellar-kinematic data have limited radial extent. Hi rotation curve corrected for an inclination warp (Martinsson 2011).

  • UGC 4458: NGC 2599, Mrk 389. Earliest morphological type in our sample (Sa), with the largest bulge-to-disk ratio (B/D = 0.72). Some spiral structure visible at large radii, but very smooth morphology otherwise. Hi rotation curve declines from 350 km s-1 to 250 km s-1. The bulge dominates all stellar-kinematic data; derived from the last measured point only.

  • UGC 4555: NGC 2649. Strong spiral structure affects μK(R). High-quality stellar-kinematic data.

  • UGC 4622: The most distant galaxy in the sample (Vsys = 12830 km s-1; D = 178 Mpc). Stellar kinematics limited to R < 15″. Type-II break in μK(R) at R ~ 15″. Fourth highest bulge-to-disk ratio (B/D = 0.16). Hi rotation curve corrected for an inclination warp (Martinsson 2011).

  • UGC 6903: Barred galaxy with rather low surface brightness. Poorest quality of stellar-kinematic data in our sample (one hour observation with PPak). Strong dip in μK(R) at R ~ 20″.

  • UGC 6918: NGC 3982. High-surface-brightness member of the Ursa Major cluster. Very high-quality kinematic data. Classified as a Seyfert 1.9 (Véron-Cetty & Véron 2006). Warped and lopsided extension to the Hi gas (Martinsson 2011); PPak kinematics are regular. Included in DMS pilot sample as presented in early publications (Verheijen et al. 2004; Bershady et al. 2005; Westfall 2009). Type-II break in μK(R) at R ~ 1hR; σLOS transitions to a shallower slope at this radius. The galaxy with the highest molecular gas-to-stellar mass ratio in the sample; together with UGC 4256 the only galaxy with higher molecular-gas mass than stellar mass. Like UGC 4256, this galaxy also shows a bump feature in the calculated molecular gas rotation curve which can be seen in the observed rotation curve. Hi rotation curve corrected for an inclination warp (Martinsson 2011).

  • UGC 7244: NGC 4195. Barred galaxy, modeled assuming no bulge; inner excess in μK(R) (R ≤ 8″) interpreted as an inner disk. As with UGC 1862, we exclude from our analysis. Stellar-kinematic measurements only reach R ~ 20″. The receding part of the Hi rotation curve rises steeper than the approaching side (Martinsson 2011). This is not seen in the Hα rotation curve, and results in some offsets between the Hi and Hα rotation curves (Sect. 4.1). In optical images (Paper I), this galaxy looks rather peculiar, with an offset bar and bent spiral arms.

  • UGC 7917: NGC 4662. High-quality stellar kinematics. Gas-poor in the center, resulting in no measured Hα and Hi kinematics in that region. Excluded kinematic data at R < 1hR (shaded region in the Atlas) to remove bar-associated regions. Type-II break in μK(R) at R ~ 25″. Fifth highest bulge-to-disk ratio (B/D = 0.14).

  • UGC 8196: NGC 4977. Early-type spiral (SAb). Third highest bulge-to-disk ratio in the sample (B/D = 0.24). Gas-poor (Martinsson 2011, Paper VI). Hi rotation curve corrected for an inclination warp (Martinsson 2011). Low-surface-brightness, extended disk with strong spiral structure not probed by our kinematics. Rather complex μK(R), transitions to a shallower slope at R ~ 10″, which may be an extent of the bulge not accounted for in our bulge-disk decomposition. Has a non-physical measurement of the maximality and is generally excluded from the results in this paper.

  • UGC 9177: Well-defined spiral structure affecting μK(R). High inclination (iTF = 40°) and high-quality rotation curves. Measurements of σLOS limited to R < 25″.

  • UGC 9837: Stellar data has a limited radial extent. Weak morphological bar does not affect the kinematics. Shallower slope in μK(R) beyond ~1hR. Regular Hi kinematics.

  • UGC 9965: IC 1132. Very nearly face-on (iTF = 12°) with strong spiral structure visible in μK(R). Bulgeless galaxy; as with UGC 1862, we exclude data within in the kinematic analysis. Hi rotation curve corrected for an inclination warp (Martinsson 2011).

  • UGC 11318: NGC 6691. Barred galaxy. Lowest inclination in the sample (), yielding a very low-amplitude projected rotation curve. Type-II break in μK(R) at ~1hR.

  • UGC 12391: NGC 7495. Type-II break in μK(R) at R ~ 25″. The mass surface density profile of the atomic gas is estimated using the results in Martinsson (2011).

Appendix A.3: Atlas


© ESO, 2013

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