Observed and model eigenfunctions for the modes shown in Fig. 1. Left column: observed velocity ( for the m = 1 and m = 2 modes, for the m = 3 mode). Middle columns: corresponding eigenfunctions of the 2D model for νt = 100 km2 s−1 and δ = 0, at the surface and through the central meridian, together with the kinetic energy density. The thick black curves show the critical latitudes. Rightmost column: eigenfunctions of the 1D model at the surface. The retrograde propagation of these modes in the Carrington frame is illustrated as an online movie. The other velocity components are shown in Fig. C.15 and the radial vorticity is shown in Fig. C.16.
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