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Table 4

Comparison of the formal errors in the initial positions of the four Galilean moons.

Moon Position Formal errors (km) Relative

component Central Alternative difference
instants observables (%)
Radial 0.222 0.242 8.2
Io Normal 6.60 7.30 9.6
Axial 4.49 4.57 1.7

Radial 0.908 1.02 10.7
Europa Normal 5.27 5.90 10.7
Axial 10.3 10.1 2.2

Radial 1.22 1.37 11.3
Ganymede Normal 5.99 6.39 6.2
Axial 17.9 18.1 1.1

Radial 1.55 1.56 0.7
Callisto Normal 8.64 8.93 3.2
Axial 25.5 26.0 1.6

Notes. The formal errors in position are expressed in the RSW frame (see Fig. 2) and are provided for the two types of observables. The last column displays the relative difference between the two. All predicted mutual approximations between the four moons over the period 2020–2029 were included in the state estimation.

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