Open Access

Fig. 4.


Open magnetic flux computed with the new (red) and old (blue) models, together with the empirical reconstruction from the geomagnetic aa-index (Lockwood et al. 2014, green). Also shown are the reconstruction by Wu et al. (2018b, green) from the decadal INTCAL13 14C data (Reimer et al. 2013) and the in situ measurements from Owens et al. (2017, dotted blue line) since 1998. Panels a,b: use ISN and GSN as input, respectively.

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