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Fig. 4

image

Simplified gas-phase and solid-state reaction network leading to the formation and destruction of H2O. s-X denotes species X on the ice surface. Three routes to water can be distinguished: (i) ion-molecule gas-phase chemistry which dominates H2O formation atlow temperatures and low densities (green); (ii) high-temperature neutral-neutral chemistry which is effective above ~250 K when energy barriers can be overcome (red); and (iii) solid-state chemistry (blue). The full solid-state network is presented in Lamberts et al. (2013). Chemically related molecules discussed in this paper such as OH, O2 and HCO+ are shown as well.

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