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Fig. 31

image

Full multilayer gas-grain model results for water and related chemical species for the temperature and density structure of the NGC 1333 IRAS 4A envelope model using the Furuya et al. (2016) chemical network, for two different timescales of the pre-stellar phase: 0.1 and 10 Myr. Top panel: gaseous O, O2 and H2O (full lines) and H2O ice (dashed lines). O2 is seen tobe strongly reduced in the 10 Myr case. Bottom figure: includes the sum of the abundances of other major O-bearing species in the models in both gas + ice. The remaining oxygen is in H2 CO, CH3 OH and other larger organic species.

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