Line luminosities of models and observations of ortho-H2O 110 –101 for planet-forming disks observed with Herschel-HIFI. Solid blue and red lines show predicted line luminosities for a Herbig disk model (blue) and a T Tauri disk model (red); see text for details. Note the logarithmic scale. The effects of non-unity filling factors are illustrated by shaded lines at 50 and 25%. The observational data are from Hogerheijde et al. (2011); Du et al. (2017) and Hogerheijde et al. (priv. comm.). Filled circles show detections, blue for the Herbig star HD 100546 and red for the T Tauri star TW Hya. The gray circles connected by the solid gray line show the detected line luminosity of the stacked detection of AA Tau, LkCa15, MWC 480 and DM Tau. Down-pointing triangles show upper limits (blue: Herbig disks; red: T Tauri disks). Data are plotted versus the observed size of the disk as measured through CO emission (upper panel) and mm-wavelength continuum emission (lower panel); for the stacked detection (gray line) the range of disk sizes is plotted. Observed disk sizes are taken from Walsh et al. (2014); Andrews et al. (2012); Loomis et al. (2017); Bergin et al. (2016); Kudo et al. (2018); Jin et al. (2019); Qi et al. (2003); Liu et al. (2019); Fedele et al. (2017); Huang et al. (2016); Dutrey et al. (2003, 2016); Hughes et al. (2009); Macías et al. (2018); Isella et al. (2016); Boehler et al. (2018); Huélamo et al. (2015); Cleeves et al. (2016). Line luminosities and disk sizes are scaled to the latest Gaia distance estimates.
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