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Fig. 24

image

H2O, HDO and D2O gas and ice abundances as function of time following an infalling trajectory from cold outer envelope (left) to inner hot core (right) using the full multilayer chemistry by Furuya et al. (2016). Top panel: water ice abundance (dotted line) in thecold outer part of the envelope, sublimating into gaseous water (solid line) when the parcel enters the ~ 100 K region. Bottom panel: computed HDO/H2O (black) and D2O/HDO (red) abundance ratios along the trajectory. Solid lines: gas phase, dotted lines: ice surface layers (top ~ 5% of ice); dashed lines: bulk ice (bottom ~95%). The bulk D2O/HDO ice ≫ bulk HDO/H2O ice, as also reflected in the warm gas ratios. The cold gaseous HDO/H2O ratio is very high in this model due to cold gas-phase chemistry; the observed HDO/H2O value for IRAS 4A is HDO/H2O = 0.025.

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