CO excitation diagrams from low to high-mass protostars based on (velocity-unresolved) PACS data. Two excitation temperature components of Trot ~300 and ~700 K are seen across the mass range. The Orion rotation diagram refers to Peak 1. Data from Herczeg et al. (2012); Karska et al. (2014a); Goicoechea et al. (2012, 2015).
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