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Fig. 1


Water rotational energy levels within the ground vibrational level. Transitions targeted with HIFI are indicated in red with frequencies in GHz, those with PACS in blue with wavelengths in μm. Dashed lines indicate water transitions detected in PACS and HIFI spectral scans. The 179 μm line observed with both PACS and HIFI is indicated in green. Purple lines indicate water (isotopolog) lines that can be observed from the ground with frequencies in GHz; some of them (e.g., 621 GHz) have also been observed with HIFI. The 22 GHz 616 − 523 maser line observed at cm wavelengths is indicated.

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