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Fig. 4


Q2 (panels a and b) and beam differences for Q4a (panel c), Q4b (panel d), Q4e (panel e), and Q4f (panel f) for τ Boo in observation L569131 in the range 14–38 MHz in Stokes-V (). Panel a: Q2 for the ON-beam vs. the OFF beam 2. Panel b: Q2 for the OFF beam 1 vs. the OFF beam 2. Panel c: Q4a (number of peaks). Panel d: Q4b (power of peaks). Panel e: Q4e (peak number offset). Panel f: Q4f (peak power offset). For panels c–f the black lines are the ON-beam difference with the OFF beam 2 and the red lines are the OFF beam difference. The dashed lines are statistical limits (1, 2, 3σ) of thedifference between all the Q4 values derived from 10 000 runs using two different Gaussian distributions. In all panels the ON-beam shows an excess above 2 σ statistical significance and is distinctly different from the OFF-beams. The probability to obtain the OFF beam curve in Q4f (panel f) by chance is ~81%, whereas it is 7 × 10−4 for the ON-beam curve, corresponding to a 3.2σ detection. A Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistical test on the two curves for Q4f in panel f conclude that the probability to reject the null hypothesis (that the two curves are drawn from the same parent distribution) is 98%.

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