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Fig. J.1


Q2 (panels a and b) and beam differences for Q4a (panel c), Q4b (panel d), Q4e (panel e), and Q4f (panel f) for υ And in observation L545197 in the range 14–38 MHz in Stokes-V (). The tentative signal is most clearly seen in Q4f, which is distinctly different for the ON-beam (black curve) than for the OFF beams (red curve). The other comments are the same as Fig. 4. The probability to reproduce the ON-beam curve by chance is 1.3% or 2.2σ, whereas the false-positive probability for the OFF beams is 59%. Additionally, we performed the Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistical test on the two curves for Q4f in panel f and find that the probability to reject the null hypothesis (that the two curves are drawn from the same parent distribution) is 76%. Therefore, the signal is possibly a false-positive.

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