Mass margins for a hollow sphere with a shell made of aerographite (ρ = 0.18 kg m−3). Colors indicate log10(mmgn) in grams (see color scale) whenever the margin is ≥1 g. The critical value for interstellar escape from interplanetary space in the solar system (σ⊙ = 7.6946 × 10−4 kg m−2 as per Eq. (7)) is indicated with a dashed line. The gray area indicates the region in which there is no margin for additional mass (see Eq. (28)). The abscissa at the bottom shows the sail radius and the abscissa at the top shows the corresponding aerographite mass of the sail without payload. Panel a: the shell is assumed to have a thickness of ϵ = 1 μm. Panel b: the shell is assumed to have a thickness of ϵ = 100 μm.
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