Future evolution of Jupiter’s spin axis projected in the plane of the obliquity and the precession constant α. Each panel corresponds to a value of the normalised polar moment of inertia of Jupiter given in title. The green bar shows the initial location of Jupiter’s spin axis according to our exploration interval of λ; the central mark is the value proposed by Ward & Canup (2006). The red curves show the centre of all first-order secular spin-orbit resonances (Cassini state 2) and the coloured areas represent their widths (same as Fig. 1). From bottom to top, the resonances are with ϕ6, with ϕ4, and with ϕ19 (see Table 2). The black dots show the numerical solutions obtained over a timespan of 5 Gyr from now; they evolve from bottom to top. According to the exact migration rate of the Galilean satellites, the timeline could somewhat contract or expand (see text).
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