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Fig. A.1.


Violin plot of the achievable precision for the four different methods for: (a) Gaia DR2: 5312099874809857024, (b) Ross 733, (c) 61 Cyg B, (d) 61 Cyg A, (e) L 143-23, (f) Innes’ star, (g) Stein 2051 B, (h) GJ 674, and (i) Barnard’s star. For each method the 16th, 50th and 84th percentiles are shown. The shape shows the distribution of the 100 determined precisions smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. In each plot, the green violin uses all the background sources. For the blue violin only background sources with a five-parameter solution are used, and for the orange violin only stars with a precision in the along-scan direction better than 0.5 mas and a five-parameter solution are used. The red violin indicates the best results when only one source is used. The dashed line indicates the median of this distribution. For each method the number of used stars is listed below the violin. Missing green violins (e.g. L 143-23 (e)) are caused by no additional background stars with a two-parameter solution only. Missing blue violins (e.g. Ross 733 (b)) are due to the fact that all background sources with a five-parameter solution have an expected precision in the along-scan direction better than 0.5 mas. For Stein 2051 B (g) none of the background stars have an expected precision better than σAL = 0.5 mas, hence the orange violin is missing. Finally the first analysis of GJ 674 (h) and Barnard’s star (i) using only one background source results in a precision worse than 100%, consequently the red violins are missing.

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