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Fig. 3


Exomoon indicators for a hypothetical Jupiter-Earth planet–moon system in a 30 d orbit around a sun-like star as measured from noiseless simulated light curves by fitting a planet-only model. Panel a: transitduration variation (TDV). Panel b: transit timing variation (TTV). Panel c: transit radius variation (TRV). Panel d: TTV vs. TDV diagram. Blue lines refer to a coplanar planet–moon system with is = 0 and orange lines depict the effects for an inclined planet–moon system with is = 0.2 rad. In each panel, the top subplot shows the photometric contribution, the center subplot the barycentric contribution, and the bottom subplot the combined and measured effect.

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