Maximum Lorentz factor of escaping protons, normalised by γ0, p, as a function of fpp for B⋆ = 1.1 × 105 G (top) and as a function of B⋆ for fpp = 0.05 (bottom). The dots correspond to simulation results, whereas the lines represent the maximum Lorentz factor of protons experiencing the vacuum potential drop, from pole to equator (orange, dashed) or across the polar cap (green, dotted).
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