Optical depth as a function of the spin temperature (as introduced in Eq. (4)) for the region close to the strong continuum source G34.256+0.146 with Toff = 103 K, Ton = 50 K, and Tcont = 17 K. The optical depth of τ = 3.5 is indicated with a black horizontal line. The temperature of the CMB is indicated at T = 2.7 K with a black vertical line.
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