Open Access

Fig. 13.


Force balance in the radial (left) and vertical (right) directions. The force terms have been horizontally and temporally averaged over the places with strongest fields and supersonic downflows of the CEF in the inner penumbra. Black: pressure forces, red: Lorentz forces, blue: acceleration forces, green: residual forces. The vertical gray dashed lines are placed at the average height of the log(τ) = 0 level in the selected regions and are located nearly 400 km beneath the average height of the log(τ) = 0 surface in the quiet sun (i.e., z = 0 km, black dashed line).

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