Top panel: mode velocity as a function of the radius normalized by the total radius of the Sun obtained using the 1D solar model (i.e., where the temperature equals the effective temperature). For the normal modes of the 3D simulation, the velocity profiles have been obtained as described in Sect. 3.1 and using Eq. (3). For the normal modes computed using the 1D solar model, the velocities are obtained as described in Sect. 3.3 and they are normalized so that their kinetic energy equals the kinetic energy of the corresponding mode in the simulation. Bottom panel: mode damping rates observed by the GOLF instrument as a function of frequency. The observations are taken from Baudin et al. (2005). The over-plotted red vertical dashed lines correspond to the frequencies of the modes in the 3D simulation (see Table 1) and are used to emphasize the correspondence with the observed solar modes.
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