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Fig. 8.


Summary of the baryon budget of the late-time Universe. Table values are adjusted from Fukugita & Peebles (2004), Shull et al. (2012) and Nicastro et al. (2017). (a) Stellar component of galaxies. (b) Cold gas in galaxies estimated from observation of HI and H2. (c) Circum-galactic medium observed through Lyα O VI absorptions (Prochaska et al. 2011). (d) Intracluster medium observed via X-ray emission. The recent detection of X-ray filaments near a massive nearby cluster (Eckert et al. 2015), and SZ signal between interacting clusters (Planck Collaboration Int. VIII 2013) measures hot gas in a similar phase as in this category. (e) Warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) detected via the thermal SZ effect; the value is estimated at z ≃ 0.5, which is consistent with the estimate by Nicastro et al. (2018) from the observation of two OVII absorbers. (f) and (g) WHIM observed via Broad Lyα and O VI absorptions; Shull et al. (2012) noted that there is some overlap between BLA and O VI. According to Nicastro et al. (2017), they trace the same gas. This is the biggest uncertainty for the amount of baryons which is still missing. (h) Gas observed via photonionised Lyα absorbers. Note that the recent detection of the kinetic SZ effect (Hernández-Monteagudo et al. 2015; Hill et al. 2016; Schaan et al. 2016; De Bernardis et al. 2017) constrains the baryon content in and around collapsed objects, and therefore falls into the category of (c) and (d).

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