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Fig. 4


Left panel: evolution of planet mass against orbital distance for an example simulation. Solid lines show the planets’ semi-major axes, while dashed lines show the planets’ pericentres and apocentres. Filled black circles represent final masses and semi-major axes for surviving planets. Black horizontal lines show the extent of the planets’ final orbits from pericentre to apocentre. The red cross indicates the expected mass and projected orbital distance of HIP 65426 b. Right panel: temporal evolution of planet masses (top), semi-major axes (middle) and eccentricities (bottom). The shaded grey area indicates the time in which the gas disc was present in the simulation. Labels in the left and right panels summarise the description in the text (Sect. 3.2).

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