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Fig. 3


Statistical constraints on the mass and post-formation entropy of HIP 65426 b from its age and luminosity. Green dots show the outcome of the MCMC using the BEX models with the AMES-COND atmospheres (Sect. 2.2). The cooling age is tcool = 12 ± 4 Myr, which is Δtform = 2 Myr less than the star’s age, and the luminosity is logLL = − 4.06 ± 0.10. Results from the hot (cold) population syntheses of Mordasini et al. (2017) are shown in dark red (dark blue). Marginalised posteriors are displayed at the bottom and in the side panel: with a flat prior, with the prior from the hot population (Eq. (5)), and with the prior from the cold population (Eq. (4), green, red, and blue lines, respectively, from top to bottom). The full lines also use the mass prior (Eq. (6)), whereas the dotted lines use a flat prior in mass. The points with error bars show the corresponding peaks of theposteriors and the 68.3% confidence intervals.

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