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Table 4

Properties of the dust continuum emission from the primary sources in our sample: PdBI data and single-dish observations.

PdBI Single dish Single-dish fluxes

231 GHz 94 GHz extrapolated to 231 GHz
Source Fint F20 k λ / Fint F20 k λ α20 k λ Frequency Integrated flux Peak flux Ref.
(mJy) (mJy) (K) (mJy) (mJy) (GHz) (mJy) Rint (′′) (mJy beam−1) θ (′′) (mJy) (mJy beam−1)
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]
L1448-2A 129 ± 18 141 ± 14 2 0.03 13 ± 2 8 ± 1 3.1 ± 0.3 268 930 20 730 31 (1) 580 450
L1448-NB1 763 ± 50 713 ± 40 13 0.20 89 ± 8 72 ± 6 2.6 ± 0.2 243 3700 20 1400 12 (2) 3240 1160
L1448-C 178 ± 13 215 ± 20 11 0.16 20 ± 4 21 ± 3 2.6 ± 0.3 243 910 14 620 12 (2) 827 560
IRAS2A 386 ± 36 420 ± 32 12 0.13 43 ± 6 31 ± 5 2.9 ± 0.3 243 875 12 (2) 780
SVS13B 318 ± 20 269 ± 21 12 0.23 43 ± 4 29 ± 4 2.5 ± 0.3 243 900 11 (3) 817
IRAS4A1 2710 ± 110 2978 ± 90 44 0.7 314 ± 19 253 ± 16 2.7 ± 0.2 243 4100 12 (2) 3260
IRAS4B1 937 ± 90 1310 ± 80 25 0.5 127 ± 16 128 ± 10 2.6 ± 0.2 243 1470 12 (2) 1290
IRAM04191 4.5 ± 1.3 5.2 ± 0.9 0.4 0.013 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 3.0 ± 0.4 243 650 30 110 11 (2) 585 99
L1521F 3.7 ± 1 6.4 ± 1 0.14 0.05 0.2 ± 0.08 0.45 ± 0.09 2.9 ± 0.4 243 120 14 (4) 95
L1527 220 ± 18 262 ± 14 12 0.20 27 ± 3 26 ± 3 2.6 ± 0.2 243 1500 30 375 12 (2) 1350 340
SerpM-S68N 111 ± 8 208 ± 9 3 0.05 10 ± 2 10 ± 3 3.3 ± 0.3 243 1030 15 550 11 (8) 870 465
SerpM-SMM4 596 ± 50 620 ± 40 17 0.35 60 ± 8 60 ± 6 2.6 ± 0.2 243 2550 20 1000 11 (8) 2192 840
SerpS-MM18 453 ± 55 483 ± 45 13 0.17 46 ± 6 29 ± 3 3.1 ± 0.2 243 2505 9 1376 12 (5) 2180 1230
SerpS-MM22 30 ± 4 50 ± 7 1.8 0.05 3.3 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.3 243 261 10 129 12 (5) 225 111
L1157 262 ± 15 260 ± 18 11 0.20 34 ± 3 24 ± 3 2.6 ± 0.3 243 630 12 (2) 569
GF9-2 13 ± 3 13 ± 3 1 0.02 1.7 ± 0.8 2.0 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.3 243 315 35 60 12 (7) 291 55

Notes. Column 1: primary protostar name. Columns 2 and 6: PdBI integrated fluxes (integrated above the 5σ level in the clean maps) at 231 and 94 GHz, respectively. Columns 3 and 7: visibility fluxes at 20 kλ (shortest common baseline for the 94 and 231 GHz data), averaged in a 20k λ baseline bin centered at 20 kλ that we used to compute thespectral index , given in Col. 8. This reflects the properties of dust emission at the largest envelope scales probed by the PdBI observations at 231 GHz (~ 10′′). We note that the 231 GHz visibility fluxes shown here stem from the 231 GHz data alone, before they were merged with the rescaled 219 GHz data (making use of the α20 kλ). Column 4: brightness temperature from the peak flux at 231 GHz. Column 5: ratio TB /Tdust at 0.5′′ scales (using Eq. (2) for Tdust with r the physical radius probed by the synthesized beam) indicative of the optical thickness of the continuum emission at the smallest scales probed in our study. Column 9: frequency of the single-dish observations used to extrapolate the envelope-scale fluxes (zero spacing). Column 10: single-dish integrated flux at the frequency indicated in Col. 9. Column 11: angular radius of the area used to compute the integrated envelope flux in single-dish maps. Column 12: single-dish peak flux at the frequency indicated in Col. 9. Column 13: FWHM of the single-dish beam used to compute the peak flux in single-dish maps. Column 15: envelope-integrated dust continuum flux from the single-dish maps, extrapolated to 231 GHz in order to be used as zero-spacing constraint in our modeling. Column 16: envelope dust continuum flux at the scale that the single-dish beam probes, extrapolated to 231 GHz in order to be used as either zero-spacing constraint in our modeling (if the source is unresolved by single-dish observations) or as an additional point at the equivalent baseline.

References. Reporting the single-dish observations. (1) Enoch et al. (2007) CSO Bolocam 1.1 mm; (2) Motte & André (2001) IRAM-30 m-MPIfR arrays 1.3 mm; (3) Chini et al. (1997) IRAM-30 m MPIfR array 1.3 mm; (4) Crapsi et al. (2004) IRAM-30 m MAMBO II 1.3 mm; (5) Maury et al. (2011) IRAM-30 m MAMBO II 1.3 mm; (6) Wiesemeyer (1997) IRAM-30 m MPIfR array 1.3 mm; (7) Kaas et al. (2004) IRAM-30 m MPIfR array 1.3 mm.

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