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Fig. 1.


Square markers denote cold branch simulations, and circle markers denote hot branch simulations. The color indicates the value of fconv. Horizontal dotted gray lines show the value of α in ZNF simulations from S18 in a highly convective simulation of the hot branch (upper line) and a typical cold branch case (bottom line). The linear fit is made using data from the cold branch simulations with β ≲ 2 × 104.

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