Upper panels: radial velocities, and mass shells where applicable (grey lines in middle and right panels). Lower panels: radial velocity vrat R = 1.5 R⋆, which is drawn in dashed grey lines in the upper panel. This is the same time interval as shown for the luminosity in Fig. 5. Left: CO5BOLD model st28gm06n26, considering only the +x direction. Middle:CO5BOLD model st28gm06n26 spherical averages. Right: DARWIN l70t27 u4 model.
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