Atmospheres and wind properties of non-spherical AGB stars
Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
Accepted: 7 August 2018
Context. The wind-driving mechanism of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is commonly attributed to a two-step process: first, gas in the stellar atmosphere is levitated by shockwaves caused by stellar pulsation, then accelerated outwards by radiative pressure on newly formed dust, inducing a wind. Dynamical modelling of such winds usually assumes a spherically symmetric star.
Aims. We explore the potential consequences of complex stellar surface structures, as predicted by three-dimensional (3D) star-in-a-box modelling of M-type AGB stars, on the resulting wind properties with the aim to improve the current wind models.
Methods. Two different modelling approaches are used; the CO5BOLD 3D star-in-a-box code to simulate the convective, pulsating interior and lower atmosphere of the star, and the DARWIN one-dimensional (1D) code to describe the dynamical atmosphere where the wind is accelerated. The gas dynamics of the inner atmosphere region at distances of R ∼ 1−2 R⋆, which both modelling approaches simulate, are compared. Dynamical properties and luminosity variations derived from CO5BOLD interior models are used as input for the inner boundary in DARWIN wind models in order to emulate the effects of giant convection cells and pulsation, and explore their influence on the dynamical properties.
Results. The CO5BOLD models are inherently anisotropic, with non-uniform shock fronts and varying luminosity amplitudes, in contrast to the spherically symmetrical DARWIN wind models. DARWIN wind models with CO5BOLD-derived inner boundary conditions produced wind velocities and mass-loss rates comparable to the standard DARWIN models, however the winds show large density variations on time-scales of 10–20 yr.
Conclusions. The method outlined in this paper derives pulsation properties from the 3D star-in-a-box CO5BOLD models, to be used in the DARWIN models. If the current grid of CO5BOLD models is extended, it will be possible to construct extensive DARWIN grids with inner boundary conditions derived from 3D interior modelling of convection and pulsation, and avoid the free parameters of the current approach.
Key words: stars: AGB and post-AGB / stars: atmospheres / stars: winds, outflows / stars: oscillations / shock waves
© ESO 2018