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Fig. 4.


Extremely massive ~1000 au-scale cores #3 and #6 and their parental MDCs in W43-MM1 (circles; Louvet et al. 2014; Motte et al. 2018b), compared to cores and MDCs of references studies (triangles; Bontemps et al. 2010; Tan et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014; Tigé et al. 2017; Louvet et al. 2017). In these studies, masses are calculated from millimeter continuum with the same assumptions: dust temperature evaluated from large-scale spectral energy distribution fit (except for Wang et al. 2014 which use NH3), gas-to-dust ratio of 100 (except for Tan et al. 2013 which use 141), and an opacity index of 1.5. Cores #3 and #6 lie well above the empirical massive star formation threshold proposed by Kauffmann & Pillai (2010; black line).

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