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Fig. 2


Time evolution of our reference simulation. From left to right and top to bottom panels: the semi-major axis ai, eccentricity ei, period ratio of adjacent planets Pi+1Pi, the resonant angles corresponding to the 2:1 resonance of the outer and inner planet pairs (see e.g. Eqs.(8) and (9)) and the Laplace angle φL = λc − 3λb + 2λe. In the top left panel, dashed vertical lines mark the times at which Fig. 1 shows the surface density. The two dashed horizontal lines indicate the semi-major axis of the giant planets as observed.

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