Example of how the detrending procedure alone can produce an exomoon-like transit signal around a planetary transit. We use “transit 5” of Kepler-1625 b as an example. Top panel: gray dots indicate the Kepler PDCSAP flux. The lines show a fourth-order polynomial fit for which we exclude 7.5 d (blue) or 4 d (orange) of data around the mid-point (dashed parts), respectively. Middle panel: dots show the detrended light curve derived from the blue polynomial fit in the top panel. The blue line illustrates a planet-only transit model. Bottom panel: dots visualize the detrended light curve using the orange polynomial fit from the top panel. We note the additional moon-like transit feature caused by the overshooting of the orange polynomial in the top panel. The orange line shows a planet–moon transit model with moon parameters as in Table 1 (see Fig. 4 for transit dynamics). As an alternative interpretation, the blue detrending function filters out an actually existing moon signature while the orange detrending fit preserves the moon signal.
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