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Fig. 1


Illustration of the determination of the PIM via gas-only hydrodynamical simulations, where we find the minimum planet-to-star mass ratio (qg) for the formation of a pressure maximum beyond the orbit of the planet. The quantity η = −h2 logPlogr (averaged over azimuth) is shown as a function of orbital radius r (normalized to the planet’s semi-major axis a). Each curve is for a pair {qg, h} at α = 5 × 10−4. The shaded black area shows where η ≈ 0 for the practical determination of qg.

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