Sky plot of the highest redshift proto-structure detected from VUDS spectroscopy (PCl J1001+0220). Plotted in the background is the smoothed (2.5 pixels FWHM) density map for all objects with zphot =4.57 ± 1.5σNMAD × (1 + 4.57) with the scale in gal/Mpc indicated by the color bar to the right. Additionally, all galaxies from VUDS+zCOSMOS with z > 2 with secure spectroscopic redshifts are plotted in the background as small gray dots. The density of these points drops precipitously to the east of the proto-cluster center owing to a lack of VUDS coverage of this area. Galaxies with secure and less secure (see Sect. 2.1) spectroscopic redshifts consistent with the redshift range of the proto-structure (4.53 <z < 4.60) are represented by filled circumscribed circles and Xs, respectively. Blue and red symbols differentiate galaxies at the redshift of the proto-structure by their rest-frame colors (younger and older than 200 Myr, respectively, see Sect. 4.2.1) and are logarithmically scaled (log4) by their stellar mass. The dashed gray and black circles (Rproj = 2 and 3 Mpc from the proto-structure center, respectively) set the boundaries for zspec and zphot members, respectively. Plotted on the bottom right is a histogram of all secure spectroscopic redshifts within Rproj < 2 Mpc ofthe proto-structure center. Plotted in the background is the combined PDF of zphot members (green filled) and non-members (dark blue hatched) with redshifts consistent with the redshift of the proto-structure.
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