Spectroscopic overdensity of the z ~ 4.57 proto-structure as seen by VUDS. The black histogram shows the incidence of galaxies with secure spectroscopic redshifts falling within a “filter” of size given at the top of the plot for 1000 trial observations of the COSMOS field. For each observation the filter is placed at a random (uniformly generated) spatial location over the VUDS footprint and given a random (uniform) redshift center in the range 4 < z < 5. The filter size is chosen to be identical to that adopted for this proto-structure. The green solid line is a Poissonian fit to the histogram with best-fit parameters given to the right of the line. The number of zspec members of the proto-structure, NPS, is denoted by the vertical dashed line. The spectroscopic overdensity (δgal = (NPS − μ)∕μ) and detection significance (σPC = (NPS − μ)∕σ) of the proto-structure is listed to the right of the line.
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