Escape rates for different processes. Escape rates are shown for the processes that depend on the planetary magnetic moment. Hydrogen escape rates are shown in panels a, c, and e, and oxygen escape rates in panels b, d, and f. Venus-like planets are shown in panels a and b; Earth-like in panels c and d and Mars-like in panels e and f. The magnetic moments of present-day Earth and Jupiter are marked on the horizontal axis for reference. The horizontal arrow indicates the unmagnetised character of Venus and Mars.
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