Free Access

Fig. 3


Escape rates for different processes. Escape rates are shown for the processes that depend on the planetary magnetic moment. Hydrogen escape rates are shown in panels a, c, and e, and oxygen escape rates in panels b, d, and f. Venus-like planets are shown in panels a and b; Earth-like in panels c and d and Mars-like in panels e and f. The magnetic moments of present-day Earth and Jupiter are marked on the horizontal axis for reference. The horizontal arrow indicates the unmagnetised character of Venus and Mars.

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.