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Fig. 2

image

Mass escape rates for Venus-like, Earth-like, and Mars-like planets. Panel a: total mass escape rates. Panel b: neutral mass escape rates. For escape from Mars, the two curves represent high (HDR) and low (LDR) estimates of dissociative recombination of molecular oxygen. The magnetic moments of present-day Earth and Jupiter are marked on the horizontal axis for reference. The horizontal arrow indicates the unmagnetised character of Venus and Mars.

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