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Fig. 15

image

Final masses of planets (total mass MP = Mc + Menv) as a function of formation distance r0 and formation time t0 in the disc. Planets that are below the dark blue line have reached pebble-isolation mass and can accrete gas. All planets that are below the white line have Mc < Menv, indicating that they have undergone runaway gas accretion. The black lines indicate the final orbital distance rf of the planet, namely 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 AU. The top plot corresponds to the pebble-isolation mass found in Lambrechts et al. (2014), while the bottom plot corresponds to the pebble-isolation mass in this work (Eq. (10)). The higher pebble-isolation mass suppresses the formation of gas giants in the very outer parts of the disc at late times.

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