Periodograms, i.e., plots of temperature (red) and polarization (black) intensity power as function of frequency, for the HWP setups under consideration: stepping every 1 s, 60 s and 3600 s and spinning at 5 Hz, 2 Hz and 0.5 Hz, for a telescope scanning at 12 deg/s and 0.7 deg/s. We note that the telescope rotation affects both temperature and polarization, while the HWP modulates only polarization. For a spinning HWP design, the polarization signal is shifted to higher frequencies into a narrow band centered around a frequency f = 4fr, where fr is the rotation frequency.
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